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03-01-2020 05:07 AM - edited 03-01-2020 05:11 AM
I brought this to the Wellness Forum as an act of charity. It is Sunday and we are allowed to treat it as a normal day not a time of penance and fasting. However I will not chat on any thread. I am leaving as soon as I post this..Have a good Lent to all who observe
from Medical News Today
Type 1 diabetes cured in mice using stem cells
New research uses an innovative technique to convert human stem cells into insulin-producing beta cells much more effectively. The insulin-producing cells created ‘rapidly cured’ type 1 diabetes in mice, and the benefits lasted for 9 months.
As many as 187,000 children and adolescents in the United States were living with type 1 diabetes in 2018.
An additional 1.4 million people aged over 20 years have the condition and manage it with insulin, according to the same statistics from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
In type 1 diabetes, a faulty autoimmune response causes the immune system to attack and destroy insulin-producing beta cells within the pancreas.
Previous research has pointed to human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) as a potential therapeutic avenue for type 1 diabetes.
Pluripotent stem cells are an attractive option for researchers from a therapeutic standpoint because they can self-renew in lab cultures and can differentiate into a variety of cell types.
Researchers have previously used hPSCs to create insulin-producing beta cells. However, they were not able to do so effectively enough to cure type 1 diabetes.
Jeffrey R. Millman, Ph.D., an assistant professor of medicine and biomedical engineering at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis, is the principal investigator of the new study, which managed to overcome these previous obstacles.
He explains the challenges that halted the scientists’ progress until now. He says, “A common problem when you’re trying to transform a human stem cell into an insulin-producing beta cell — or a neuron or a heart cell — is that you also produce other cells that you don’t want.”
“In the case of beta cells, we might get other types of pancreas cells or liver cells.” While implanting these unnecessary — or “off-target” — cells does not cause any harm, Millman further explains that creating more of them offsets the number of therapeutically useful cells.
“The more off-target cells you get, the less therapeutically relevant cells you have,” he says.
“You need about a billion beta cells to cure a person of diabetes. But if a quarter of the cells you make are actually liver cells or other pancreas cells, instead of needing a billion cells, you’ll need 1.25 billion cells. It makes curing the disease 25% more difficult.”
However, the new research used an innovative technique that bypassed this problem. The findings appear in the journal Nature Biotechnology.
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The new technique targets the cytoskeleton — or inner “scaffolding” — of the hPSC to direct their differentiation into pancreatic cells.
The cytoskeleton is a structure that helps cells keep their shape and offers the mechanical support that allows cells to move, divide, and multiply.
Targeting this structure allows the researchers to create fewer irrelevant cells and better functioning beta cells that helped control blood sugar.
Millman explains the novelty of the approach, saying, “It’s a completely different approach, fundamentally different in the way we go about it.”
“Previously, we would identify various proteins and factors and sprinkle them on the cells to see what would happen. As we have better understood the signals, we’ve been able to make that process less random.”
Millman and team transplanted “islet-sized aggregates” of beta cells differentiated from hPSC into mice with type 1 diabetes.
Pancreatic islets are groups of cells located in the pancreas. Some of these cells are insulin-producing beta cells.
This transplantation procedure “rapidly reversed severe preexisting diabetes in mice,” write the authors in their paper. The new stem cell protocol “can rapidly cure preexisting diabetes in mice,” they emphasize later on.
The reversal occurred at a rate similar to that of human islets, and normal blood sugar control was maintained for at least 9 months.
“We were able to make more beta cells, and those cells functioned better in the mice, some of which remained cured for more than a year.”
– Jeffrey Millman
The principal investigator continues to report on the highly significant findings.
“These mice had very severe diabetes with blood sugar readings of more than 500 milligrams per deciliter of blood (mg/dL)— levels that could be fatal for a person — and when we gave the mice the insulin-secreting cells, within 2 weeks their blood glucose levels had returned to normal and stayed that way for many months.”
However, the researcher also explains that there are a few more steps to follow before the research can help humans.
First, researchers must test the cells in larger animals and then find a way to automate the new technique to produce the billions of cells required for the millions of people that have type 1 diabetes.
03-01-2020 05:17 AM
From Daily Mail it is too long to post and I can't link becuse of advertising
St Louis scientists cure diabetes in mice in just two weeks using converted human cells to produce insulin, giving hope to 400 million people
Published: 13:28 EST, 29 February 2020 | Updated: 15:10 EST, 29 February 2020
03-01-2020 05:22 AM
Insulin signaling suppressed by decoys Date: February 25, 2020 Source: Scripps Research Institute Summary: The discovery of an insulin 'decoy' molecule shakes up understanding of insulin signaling, with implications for diabetes, longevity and aging research. Share:
In a discovery that may further the understanding of diabetes and human longevity, scientists at Scripps Research have found a new biological mechanism of insulin signaling. Their study, involving the roundworm C. elegans, reveals that a "decoy" receptor is at work in binding to insulin molecules and keeping them from sending signals for increased insulin production.
The study appears in the journal eLife. It describes a new player in the insulin signaling system, one that may offer insights into insulin resistance, a feature of type 2 diabetes. The scientists are now assessing whether a similar decoy exists in humans. If so, it could present a new target for diabetes treatment and prevention research.
"This truncated, 'decoy' receptor that we've found adds yet another layer of complexity to our understanding of insulin signaling," says lead author Matthew Gill, PhD, associate professor in the Department of Molecular Medicine at Scripps Research in Florida.
In an associated commentary, Princeton University geneticist Coleen Murphy, PhD, writes that the discovery shocks, given how well-studied insulin signaling is.
"It would be hard to overstate the importance of a receptor called DAF-2 to our understanding of aging and longevity," Murphy writes. "The discovery...raises new questions and will change how we think about DAF-2's role in insulin signaling regulation of aging and longevity."
Insulin is a hormone of ancient and fundamental importance to animals, and insulin-like proteins are found even in simpler organisms such as bacteria, fungi and worms. In humans, it acts as a signal to key cell types, directing them to pull in glucose from the blood. This helps maintain cellular energy stores and keeps blood sugar within a safe range. Type 2 diabetes, which is estimated to affect more than 30 million people in the United States, features a failure of insulin signaling to reduce blood glucose levels.
Since the 1990s researchers have recognized that insulin signaling is also an important regulator of longevity. For example, mutations in the gene that encodes the C. elegans insulin receptor DAF-2 can more than double the worm's lifespan.
Gill and his colleagues focused on a variant form of the C. elegans receptor known as DAF-2B. It's a truncated version that contains the usual binding site for insulin, but doesn't respond as the normal version would by sending a cellular signal to initiate insulin production.
The team confirmed that the gene for DAF-2B is active throughout the worm lifespan, and they used CRISPR gene-editing technology to tag the receptor with a fluorescent molecule and thus track its location in the worm body. From these experiments it became apparent that DAF-2B is secreted from the cells that produce it into the space surrounding the tissues of the worm, acting as a decoy to capture insulin molecules and thereby reduce insulin signaling.
"Normally insulin molecules float around and interact with insulin receptors to create insulin signals, but when they bind to these decoy receptors, they generate no signal, so producing these decoys appears to be a way to modulate insulin signaling," Gill says.
The scientists found that overproducing DAF-2B could tip worms into a semi-dormant state that normally occurs when food is scarce and insulin signaling is low. Overproduction of DAF-2B increased worm lifespan as well.
Although the discovery of this mechanism for regulating insulin signaling is a significant basic-science advance, it also suggests a new way of thinking about diabetes and even aging. The precise causes of the insulin resistance that underlies diabetes and is also seen to some extent with normal aging have never been fully illuminated.
"One possibility is that insulin resistance is caused by the abnormal overproduction of a truncated, 'decoy' insulin receptor like the one we've found," Gill says.
DAF-2B is produced from the same gene as the DAF-2 receptor, and results when the RNA transcript that is copied out from the gene is sliced and re-spliced in an alternative form. This alternative splicing process is known to occur for many genes, but Gill notes that it is often dysregulated with aging or certain kinds of disease.
"You can imagine that in the prime of life, splicing and expression of this truncated isoform, DAF-2B, is tightly regulated, but then with a broader change in the splicing system due to disease or aging it becomes dysregulated and leads to insulin resistance," Gill says.
If so, and if humans also have a decoy insulin receptor like DAF-2B, then reversing its dysregulation in people who have insulin resistance might be a new strategy for better metabolic health.
03-15-2020 05:24 AM
I want to share this information with everyone , particularly those with compromised immune systems like myself
I will also give you an update on me. We are watching mass via TV right now. We feel it is best to heed the advice about not gathering in large groups. the Bishop has dismissed the obligation of Sunday mass at present. Our scripture classes have also been cancelled. We have not seen our daughter, who is delivering meals to those under quarantine. She knocks at their door after whe places the food in fron of it, and leaves. She is not in contact with them directly, but she doesn't want to chance brigning something to us..
I will be leaving right after this is posted. Know you are all in my prayers...I sent this to my prayer chain people. I have been taking prescription Vit D for over 1 year. I take 57,000 units a week , and my levels are still low. This is done as per my Dr and my levels are regularly tested
.........Fear not little flock you are never alone
I have been listening to this British Dr today ,regarding the Coronavirus. He has some information I felt some of you might be interested in, about the benefits of Vit D regarding immunity against respiratory viral infections ,according to a recent study, this was released released 3 days ago
He is filled with information about the best way to help yourself fight the latest virus..Other videos explain what is now happening in England ,and what we can expect..He is scientific and not someone who is trying to scare people.
Next Sunday is already Laetare Sunday, a time for rejoicing because lent is almost over...Be safe everyone
03-15-2020 05:33 AM
PS as of right now ,we are still doing the Food Pantry. Not sure for how long before it is closed down. I spray all surfaces with Lysol, and wear vinyl gloves ,as do many of us, but not all..I am not afraid, I know that people need to eat ,no matter what, so I am hoping we sill still get food deliveries ,but I am not sure it will continue. We are a small band of volunteers, and not a large group. I am not afraid, nor is my husband or the others..We will all get through this, and so will you!
03-22-2020 05:18 AM
Gloriajean contacted me to ask after me . She said there had been questions about my absence.. I am fine . I did post several times I would be on hiatus during Lent. thank you for wondering...
While I am here ,I would like to encourage everyone to be their best selves during this time. I understand people want to discuss the current situation, but please be mindful about what you say and to whom. There is no point in frightening others, particularly children. This is like any other problem ,and your attitude is half the battle. Tomorrow is not guaranteed to anyone, so lets try to make today count.
When you have health problems , it is best to do your best ,to cooperate with those in charge, and remember it isn't all about us ,all the time. There are men and women on the front lines fighting this disease, and helping the rest of us meet our needs..Poor me ,gets old real fast
My son is sure he has COVID-19. He had all the symptom's. It started out with what he thought was his allergies giving him the sniffles. This went on for about 3 or 4 days before he got sick. He had all the classic symptoms, and did not go the the Dr. He wasn't that ill. For about a day or 2 he felt really rough. He is on the mend now. I am telling you this to show you, that most people are going to be just fine
I have a compromised immune system ,and so do the people reading this thread( for the most part) Remember what our parents went though, a pandemic, a depression and 2 World Wars. The thing I admire about them was their spirit..You are going to get through this, and look back and think, how did I conduct myself during this time. Be the person you can be proud of, later on..Think about others first
God bless and know you are in my prayers, along with countless others..We who believe ,can always pray for those, less fortunate than we are, and there are legions of them
Make other people laugh, or smile. Uplift them with happy thoughts and positive words
Take care of yourselves. Don't forget to wash your hands and door knobs. Sometimes when we get things like the mail, or go outdoors for s bit we might forget to do this...
I am watching mass via Tv. Today for the first time my own church will be streaming mass. I am pleased to be able to hear my own pastor for the first time in a few weeks.
I have not been able to work at our pantry. It is closed down along, with our churches by our Bishop. I hope those that need food are going to be OK. I did read all of the schools are passing out premade sack lunches. Good for them...Lots of people are working very hard to help others, so if you can't drive the train, be a wheel greaser, everyone is needed right now..take care of yourself. I miss you ,and you are important to me
03-29-2020 06:57 AM
Good morning. I am fine and so is Mr Cherry. It is a bit bad right now, but this too shall pass. Remember to wash your hands often, and stay away from other people as much as you can
I have found a couple of things to help us feel better, and not so cooped up. I leave our bathroom window open all night. The fresh air seems to make us feel a bit less confined. We go for a mile walk everyday we can. I miss getting out and about, miss the gym, and the freedom to go where I want. However, it is a small price to pay to beat this virus
If any of you are in need of prayer leave me a message on this thread and I wil share it with my prayer chain members..
There is good news about. Vit D is also a help to diabetics....here is a link
Remember to be kind to one another, because being nice matters, particularly during times like this. I miss you, and will be back once Easter comes, and it will..be well and be safe
03-29-2020 09:29 AM
@cherry @Wow good to see you are okay.I was certain with all you are involved in that you were most likely not well.Nice to know that you are just taking a break.
My friend in Canada describes it as The the whole world is taking a rest at this time.
03-29-2020 11:21 AM - edited 03-29-2020 11:22 AM
I wanted to bring this over so people could see it. It shows that things seem to be getting a bit better in Italy. It will here too, but will take a couple more weeks or so, until then , the best thing we can do is to cooperate, and do our best to protect ourselves
I will see you next Sunday
wisdom from Dr John Campbell
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